INTechHouse BLOG 09.08.2023 14 min.
Time and Material Cooperation Model
INTechHouse BLOG 09.08.2023 14 min.

Time and Material Cooperation Model

Krzysztof Pióro Sales Director

Time and Material Cooperation Model: Pros, Cons, and Examples

In the world of project development and outsourcing, various cooperation models are used to cater to the diverse needs of businesses and clients. One such model gaining popularity is the Time and Material (T&M) cooperation model. In this article, we’ll explore the advantages, disadvantages, and examples of implementing the Time and Material cooperation model.

What is the Time and Material Cooperation Model?

T&M meaning is very important.

The Time and Material cooperation model is a flexible modern approach where the client pays for the actual time and resources invested in a project. Unlike fixed-price models, T&M allows for greater adaptability and transparency, making it ideal for projects with dynamic requirements or evolving scopes.

Time and Material Short History

The Time and Material (T&M) cooperation model has a long history and has been used by various industries for different types of projects. While it is challenging to pinpoint the exact first companies that started using this model, its origins can be traced back to the early days of project outsourcing and professional services.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, industries like construction and engineering began to adopt a form of T&M model for their projects. Clients would pay contractors based on the actual time and materials used to complete the project. This approach allowed for greater flexibility, especially when dealing with complex and unpredictable construction projects.

In the mid-20th century, the T&M model gained popularity in the field of consulting and professional services. Consulting firms started billing clients based on the actual time their consultants spent on projects, along with any expenses incurred during the engagement. This model allowed clients to have a transparent view of the consulting firm’s efforts and the costs involved.

As the information technology industry emerged, the T&M model found its way into software development and IT services. During the 1970s and 1980s, software development projects were often difficult to estimate accurately, given the dynamic nature of programming and evolving client requirements. The T&M model offered a suitable alternative, as it allowed clients to pay for actual development hours and resources used, providing them with greater control over the project’s direction.

In the 21st century, with the rise of digitalization and outsourcing, the T&M model expanded to various industries, including marketing, design, and digital services. Companies found this model particularly valuable for projects with uncertain or evolving scopes, as it allowed them to adapt to changing market demands and requirements.

Today, the Time and Material cooperation model continues to be widely adopted by companies around the world. Its flexibility, transparency, and adaptability make it a preferred choice for businesses engaged in projects with dynamic needs and evolving priorities. While other cooperation models exist, the T&M model’s historical success and proven track record have solidified its position as a reliable approach for businesses seeking agility and control in their projects.

Pros of the Time and Material Cooperation Model:

  • Flexibility and Adaptability: T&M provides flexibility to adjust project requirements, priorities, and timelines as the project progresses. This adaptability is especially beneficial for projects with changing needs or those requiring constant iterations.
  • Transparent Costing: With T&M, clients have a clear view of the project’s cost breakdown, including hourly rates for resources and the number of hours worked. This transparency builds trust and enables effective budget management.

  • Accurate Billing: T&M ensures that clients pay for the actual work done, reducing the risk of overpaying for services not utilized. Clients can prioritize project components based on real-time progress.
  • Scope Evolution: Projects often encounter scope changes during development. T&M allows businesses to embrace these changes without incurring additional costs for contract modifications.
  • Quick Start and Flexibility in Resources: T&M facilitates quicker project initiation, as there is no need to finalize the entire project scope beforehand. Moreover, businesses can scale resources up or down based on changing project demands.

Cons of the Time and Material Cooperation Model:

  • Cost Overruns: If the project requirements are not adequately defined, there is a risk of cost overruns as development may extend beyond the initially estimated time.
  • Lack of Fixed Budget: The absence of a fixed budget can make financial planning challenging for clients who prefer strict cost control.
  • Dependency on Vendor Expertise: Clients rely heavily on the vendor’s expertise and efficiency, as the project’s overall cost is directly linked to resource hours worked.
  • Limited Predictability: The T&M model is less predictable than fixed-price models, making it less suitable for projects with well-defined scopes and tight budgets.

Best Examples of Time and Material Cooperation Model

There are three popular ways of using time and material cooperation model:

  • Software Development: A client outsources a software development project to a vendor on a T&M basis. The client provides general requirements but expects them to evolve throughout the development process.
  • Digital Marketing Campaign: A company hires a marketing agency under the T&M model to manage its digital marketing efforts. The agency charges based on the hours worked by its team members, providing regular reports on progress and costs.
  • IT Support Services: An organization partners with an IT service provider on a T&M basis to handle its IT support and maintenance. The client pays for the actual hours spent on resolving issues and improving system performance.

INTechHouse is working with the time and material cooperation model and we, definitely, know how to develop specific software and hardware for various businesses. Let’s start an effective converstation.

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Who Runs the World: Time and Material Cooperation Model

-Companies choose Time and Material more often than other models.


-They save much money.

Companies can save money using the Time and Material (T&M) cooperation model for several reasons:

  • Cost Efficiency: The T&M model allows companies to pay for the actual time and resources utilized on a project. This ensures that they are only billed for the work that is done, making it a cost-efficient option, especially for projects with fluctuating workloads or changing requirements.
  • No Fixed Price Overhead: Unlike fixed-price models, where companies are charged a lump sum upfront, the T&M model eliminates the need for a fixed budget. This absence of fixed-price overhead allows companies to allocate funds more effectively and adjust spending based on the project’s progress and needs.
  • Transparency in Billing: With the T&M model, companies receive detailed invoices that break down the hours worked and expenses incurred. This transparency enables better cost control and budget monitoring, preventing any unexpected cost escalations.
  • Optimized Resource Utilization: The T&M model encourages efficient resource utilization, as companies pay for the actual hours worked by the project team. This incentivizes teams to be productive and focused on delivering results, optimizing resource allocation.
  • Adaptability to Scope Changes: Projects often encounter scope changes during development. The T&M model accommodates these changes without incurring additional costs for contract modifications, providing companies with cost-saving flexibility.
  • Cost-Effective for Short-Term Projects: For short-term projects or those with uncertain durations, the T&M model can be more cost-effective than fixed-price alternatives. Companies can engage resources for the required duration without committing to long-term contracts.
  • Reduced Risk of Overpayment: With a T&M model, there is a reduced risk of overpayment, as companies pay based on verifiable work completed. This provides greater assurance that funds are allocated appropriately and that they get value for their investment.
  • Access to a Diverse Talent Pool: The T&M model allows companies to tap into a diverse talent pool on an as-needed basis. This flexibility enables access to specialized skills and expertise without the long-term commitment of hiring full-time employees.
  • Encourages Collaboration and Efficiency: The T&M model encourages close collaboration between the company and the service provider, promoting an efficient working relationship. This collaboration can lead to better results and cost-saving synergies.
  • Risk Mitigation: The T&M model mitigates financial risks associated with project uncertainties. Companies can adjust project scope, timelines, and resource allocation based on real-time progress, ensuring a more successful outcome and minimizing costly setbacks.

In summary, the Time and Material cooperation model offers cost-saving advantages due to its flexibility, transparency, and adaptability. By paying for actual work performed and resources utilized, companies can optimize their spending, effectively manage budgets, and achieve successful project outcomes without unnecessary financial burden.

Save your money and time using time and material cooperation model. It’s flexible to your business needs.

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When it's Necessary to Choose Time and Material Cooperation Model: INTechHouse Business Advice

INTechHouse business advice suggests that the Time and Material (T&M) cooperation model is a suitable choice under certain circumstances. Here are scenarios where it’s easy to choose the T&M model:

  • Dynamic and Evolving Projects: If your project requirements are dynamic and subject to frequent changes, the T&M model is an excellent fit. It allows for flexibility, enabling you to adapt to evolving needs and prioritize project components based on real-time progress.
  • Uncertain Scope and Duration: For projects with uncertain scope or undefined endpoints, the T&M model is advantageous. It provides the ability to start quickly and adjust the project scope as the requirements become clearer.
  • Collaborative Engagement: When you seek close collaboration with the development team and want to actively participate in the project’s direction, the T&M model is well-suited. It fosters transparency and open communication, promoting a strong partnership between you and the service provider.
  • Agile Development Approach: If your project follows agile development methodologies, such as Scrum or Kanban, the T&M model complements these iterative practices. It aligns seamlessly with agile principles, allowing for continuous feedback and adjustment.
  • Resource Scalability: The T&M model offers the advantage of resource scalability. Whether you need to increase or decrease the team’s size based on project demands, the T&M model accommodates your resource requirements.
  • Transparency and Cost Control: If you prioritize transparency in billing and want to closely monitor your project’s costs, the T&M model is ideal. You receive detailed invoices, enabling you to understand how your budget is allocated and optimize resource utilization.
  • Short-term Projects: For short-term engagements or specific project phases, the T&M model provides cost-effective solutions. You can engage resources as needed without committing to long-term contracts.

INTechHouse advises considering the T&M model when your project aligns with these criteria. However, each project is unique, and it’s essential to evaluate the specific requirements, risk tolerance, and budget considerations before making a final decision. Discussing your project needs with INTechHouse or any other service provider will help you determine the most suitable cooperation model for your business objectives.

How Does T&M Contract Look Like?

A Time and Material (T&M) contract typically outlines the terms and conditions of the engagement between the client and the service provider. While specific details may vary based on the project and the parties involved, here are the common elements you would find in a T&M contract:

  • Introduction and Parties: The contract starts with an introduction, stating the names and contact details of both parties involved—the client (buyer) and the service provider (seller).
  • Scope of Work: The contract defines the scope of work, describing the project’s objectives, deliverables, and key milestones. It should be clear, concise, and specific to avoid any ambiguity.
  • Hourly Rates and Billing: The contract specifies the hourly rates of each team member or resource involved in the project. It also outlines the billing frequency (e.g., weekly or monthly) and the method of tracking hours worked.
  • Resource Allocation: If applicable, the contract may detail how resources will be allocated and any provisions for scaling the team up or down based on project needs.
  • Expenses and Reimbursements: The contract may include provisions for reimbursable expenses incurred during the project, such as travel, accommodation, or software licenses.
  • Payment Terms: The contract outlines the payment terms, including the schedule of payments and any milestone-based payments if agreed upon.
  • Reporting and Invoicing: It specifies the format and frequency of project status reports and invoices that the service provider will provide to the client.
  • Change Management: The contract should address how changes to the project scope will be handled, including the process for submitting change requests, impact assessments, and approvals.
  • Confidentiality and Intellectual Property: The contract typically includes clauses to protect confidential information and intellectual property rights of both parties.
  • Termination Clause: It outlines the conditions under which either party can terminate the contract, including any notice periods required.
  • Liability and Indemnity: The contract may include provisions related to liability for damages and indemnification in case of any legal disputes.
  • Governing Law and Jurisdiction: The contract states the governing law that applies to the agreement and the jurisdiction for resolving any legal disputes.
  • Signatures and Date: Finally, the contract is signed and dated by representatives of both parties, indicating their acceptance of the terms and conditions.

Keep in mind that T&M contracts can be tailored to suit the specific needs and complexities of each project. It’s essential to have a clear understanding of the terms before entering into any contractual agreement, and legal counsel is recommended to review and finalize the contract.

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The Time and Material cooperation model offers numerous advantages in terms of flexibility, transparency, and adaptability. While it may not be suitable for every project, it proves invaluable for endeavors where requirements evolve, and close collaboration with the vendor is essential. Businesses must carefully evaluate their project needs and risk tolerance to determine if the T&M model aligns with their objectives and budgeting preferences. When executed with clarity and effective communication, the Time and Material model can lead to successful project outcomes and satisfied clients.


Yes, Project Management plays a crucial role in Time and Material (T&M) contracts. Project Management is responsible for overseeing and coordinating the entire project, ensuring that it progresses smoothly, meets the agreed-upon objectives, and adheres to the defined scope of work.

The Time and Materials (T&M) agreement is a type of contract used in project-based engagements. In a T&M agreement, the client pays the service provider based on the actual time spent on the project and the materials used, such as software licenses or hardware. It allows for flexibility in project scope and accommodates changes as the project progresses. The agreement typically outlines hourly rates, resource allocation, invoicing procedures, and other terms specific to the project.

  • The main difference between Time and Materials (T&M) and fixed-price contracts lies in how the service provider charges for the work:
  • T&M: In a T&M contract, the client pays for the actual hours worked and the materials used. The project scope and requirements can be flexible and may evolve throughout the project. Clients have transparency in costs and can scale resources based on their needs.
  • Fixed Price: In a fixed-price contract, the service provider and the client agree on a set price for the entire project, regardless of the actual hours worked or materials used. The scope of work is usually well-defined from the beginning, and any changes may require contract modifications.

Fixed-price contracts have some potential pitfalls to consider: Scope Creep, Inflexibility to Changes, Unforeseen Risks, Profit Margin Pressure, Contract Disputes.

To mitigate these pitfalls, thorough project planning, clear scope definition, effective change management, and open communication between the parties are essential in fixed-price contracts.

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